(1) Calculating Rational Points over Elliptic Curve on F(2^n)
Kodai Fukushi (Dept. of Electirical and Infomation System Eng, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University) Kenji Ichijo (Dept. of Electirical and Infomation System Eng, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University) Yoshio Yoshioka (Dept. of Electirical and Infomation System Eng, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University)
The number of rational points on an elliptic curve becomes important in the case of construction of an elliptic curve cryptosystem. If the size of a finite field is large, it will be impossible actually to calculate the number of points by the round-robin method. Therefore various algorithms to count the number of points now is proposed. We developed the calculation library for elliptic curves over a finite field which has characteristic 2 by C++, and implemented Schoof algorithm and Schoof-Elkies-Atkin(SEA) algorithm - the counting points algorithm. Counting the number of points on random elliptic curves using these program, we verifies whether the number of points can be computed within a possible time.
(2) A Method of Maintaining Quality of Digital Watermarking for Binary Images Based on Local Measures
Many methods of watermarking embed copyrights into binary images by altering pixels on edges, however, those previous methods then deteriorate the quality. Based on human visual features, this paper proposes a new criteria for determining pixels whose alterations are imperceptible, by using local measures for binary images. Experimental evaluations show that the proposed method enhances the quality of watermarked images without the loss of robustness.
(3) Consideration on Long Term Security of Digital Document with Digital Signature
The usage of a digital signature is being increased with progress of electronic commerce or the electronic government. However, the security in the case of keeping the digital document with the digital signature for the long time has been hardly examined. First of all, we show that biggest problem to use digital document with digital signature for long time is the public key cipher weakened for these period. Next, required countermeasures are analyzed for every patterns of a public key cipher weakness. Lastly, these countermeasures are evaluated, and the result is reported.
(4) Proposal on Personal Authentication System in which Biological Information is embedded in Cryptosystem Key
Yukio Itakura Shigeo Tsujii
Biometric personal authentication systems have a common problem - the biological information can easily be stolen by other individuals. In line with the process of the activities for the international standardization of the biometric system, this paper proposes a typical way to embed biological information, whatever its kind, into cryptographic keys as a measure for privacy protection and against unauthorized use. We believe that our proposal presents the following advantages: the improvement of protecting the privacy of biological information, economical effectiveness resulting from the practical use of the infrastructure of Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) as a biological information database, and humanity given to a man-machine interface by embedding an individual's biological information into a public key, an importantelement of the system. This paper also proposes how to build up a practical personal authentication system through the method proposed.
(5) Information exchange infrastructure about authentication and authorization
Nobuhiro Kobayashi (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Information Technology R&D Center) Tetuo Nakakawaji (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Information Technology R&D Center)
In future ubiquitous computing environment, different information systems will collaborate ,and will achieve more advanced services. But, it may have the risk. Privacy information such as a use history accumulated in the server may be used for the use which a user does not expect. Then, we propose the following systems. The server shows the user the trust point of the certificate path as authorization conditions that is required in PKI.. The user receives digital signature from one higher-level CA by blind signature method. Without showing privacy information, the user can exchange the information about authentication and authorization between systems.
(6) Individual Authentication by Input Location Information
Yutaka Arakawa Keisuke Takemori Iwao Sasase
We summarize dangers on authentication system used at a bank or credit card, and introduce several measures against them. We implement and evaluate one of these measures, authentication system using input location information, in consideration of the balance between security intensity and usability. Consequently, some problems became clear. In this paper, we propose the authentication system that can improve these problem. By using our authentication system, it is possible to improve security intensity without spoiling usability.
(7) The Extensions and Evaluation of Web service port/host conversion system
Masato Terada (Systems Development Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd.) Hiromi Isokawa (Systems Development Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd.) Yasuhiko Nagai (Systems Development Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd.) Makoto Nakahara (Information & Telecommunication Systems, Hitachi Ltd.)
We challenge the issue to tackle a problem about self-propagating worm of Web service based; how one can suppress Web service based worm propagation and support the stable Web service operation. We propose a "Alternative Service Plane" to provide multiple application service stage which responded with the threat type or level. Alternative Service Plane provides the framework for changing from one service stage to other service stage to reduce the threats. This paper described the extension of a proof-of-concept prototype "Web mapper (Web service port / host mapping system)" and the process for functional evaluation in our intranet environment.
(8) An Implementation of the Charging system on the client by inseparable processing of content replay and charging
Hiroshi Aono (NTT DoCoMo, Inc. Multimedia Laboratories) Reiko Hoshino (NTT DoCoMo, Inc. Multimedia Laboratories) Sadayuki Hongo (NTT DoCoMo, Inc. Multimedia Laboratories) Masataka Suzuki (Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University) Kenichiro Akai (Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University) Tsutomu Matsumoto (Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University)
Recently, the contents downloading service is one of the major services of mobile E-commerce. But this service has the problem of the illegal copy substantially so that most of the systems that implement this service in order not to take out contents data from terminal. This implementation will spoil the user convenience. It is necessary that the system enables the user to transfer contents data freely and enables the contents provider to charge the user for using the contents. In this paper we propose the charging system on the client by inseparable processing of content replay and charging, and describe an implementation of it.
(9) A Proposal for Technique to Reduse False Positive of Network IDS with Machine Learning
Reina Miyaji (Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University) Hiroaki Ohya (Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University) Nobutaka Kawaguchi (Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University) Hiroshi Shigeno (Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University) Kenichi Okada (Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University)
Recently,network-based IDS,which always observes the packets flowing in the network, has become thefocus of the public attention with increasing security incident.However,network-based IDS frequently mistakes attacks.Especially, IDS generates many false positives,that are bogus alerts caused by mistakes normal events with attacks.In this paper,we proposed a technique to detect false positive with machine learning.
(10) Evaluation of Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) with Snort using a high-speed hardware/software detection architecture
In recent years, many people have connected to their computers to the Internet through broadband access lines. In this situation, computers are always running and the number of illegal attacks are increasing. This has becomes a serious problem. In order to prevent the damage from illegal attacks, Intrusion detection system (IDS) has been developed. However, when the bandwidth of background traffic in the network system becomes large, the operation performance of IDS rapidly becomes worse. In this paper, we propose a hardware/software co-operation security system with IDS, and evaluate the system.
IDS(Intrusion Detection Systems) reports a lot of alarms on network systems. In this paper , we propose an IDS log analyzer which can detect anomaly events by using statistical methods. A short term profile and a long term profile are computed from source IP/Ports, destination IP/Ports and attack signatures. A differential analysis and a confidential analysis are implemented with those profiles to decrease process of monitoring operations for network administrators. Furthermore, we propose an access country analysis and a correlation analysis to understand the trend of the Internet and the Intranet. The former analysis computes a profileabout source country code, and the latter analysis observes a profile between outgoing attacks and incoming attacks. We evaluate the differential analysis and the confidential analysis by using actual Internet data. As a result, these two analysis methods suggest redundant alarms or rear alarms. So it is expected that the analyzer reduces the costs of IDS operation.
(12) An Anonymous Buyer-Seller Watermarking Without Trust Assumptions
Jae-Gwi Choi (Department of Information Security, Pukyong national university, Busan, Korea.) Kouichi Sakurai (Faculty of Computer Science and Communication Engineering, Kyushu university, Fukuoka, Japan.) Ji-Hwan Park (Department of Information Security, Pukyong national university, Busan, Korea.)
Digital watermarking scheme has been proposed as a method of copy protection and copy restraint for multimedia content. In copy restraint, a content owner (seller) inserts a unique watermark into a copy of the content before it is sold to a buyer. If the buyer distributes the unauthorized copies of the watermarked content, the buyer (a copyright violator) can be traced using a watermark detection algorithm. Recently, Ju et al., proposed an anonymous buyer-seller watermarking protocol, where a buyer can purchase contents anonymously, but anonymity control is provided. The significance of this protocol is that it first offered the anonymity of a buyer to watermarking schemes. But problems of this protocol are that the private key of a buyer can be exposed and whenever unauthorized copy is found, the three parties (the seller, the watermark certificate center, the judge) must all participate in the copyright violator identification process. In this paper, we propose a secure buyer-seller watermark protocol which can solve this problem. In the proposed scheme, the private key of a buyer will not be exposed if discrete logarithm problem is hard. Furthermore, we do not make any trust assumptions about the watermark certificate center or other authorities. Also, a seller can identify the copyright violator without the help of the watermark certificate center and the judge under robust watermarking schemes.
(13) Issues in Govermental Multi-application Smartcard Requirements
Shinji Yamane (Faculty of Software Information Science, Iwate Prefectural University) Yuko Murayama (Faculty of Software Information Science, Iwate Prefectural University)
Japanese government had proposed the single smartcard enough to run multiple applications. It is called "common IC card in public sector"(Kouteki Bun-ya ni okeru Renkei IC card). In 2001, the ministries agreed the adoption of operational policies and technical specifications for common IC card in public sector. This paper exmines the govermental requirements oo the smartcard from the view point of security engineering and risk analys. This paper also comment on the smartcard issues in US, Germany, and UK.
(14) A new Intrusion Detection technique based on discriminating user's input Data
Toru DAIBOU Tomoyuki NAGASE Yoshio YOSHIOKA
In a system based on input command such as UNIX system, illegitimate intentions of a user's intrusion into the system can be detected from a sequence of user's input data. This paper proposes a new detection technique based on measuring the degree of the similarity and analyzing the behavior of user's input commands which include input commands' history and newly inputted commands. Although, the information of a user's behavior on WWW servers and databases is also collected that may provide user's intrusion on the system. Simulation results for interrelating user's input commands using the proposed technique demonstrate that the intrusions could be easily determined and quickly constrained.